The lead author of the scholarly study is Ali Mansour, M.D., formerly a postdoctoral fellow in Apkarian's lab. Apkarian's research focuses on the relationship between chronic discomfort and the brain. One of his previous studies showed chronic pain sufferers lose gray matter volume over time. Chronic pain is among the most expensive healthcare circumstances in the U.S. And takes an enormous toll on standard of living, yet there isn’t a scientifically validated therapy for the problem still.The ratio of UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose was decreased, suggesting that UDP-galactose is limiting for N-glycan biosynthesis . Effect of Galactose Supplementation in Tradition By adding galactose to the culture medium of fibroblasts from patients, glycosylation was enhanced, as assessed by way of glycosylation of ICAM-1 and Glyc-ER-GFP . The result on Glyc-ER-GFP was enhanced by the addition of uridine to the tradition medium further, which led to essentially regular glycosylation of the test protein . Glycogen content was not affected by either galactose or glucose supplementation .